The notion of a typical “Western” way of war, as espoused most clearly by Victor Davis Hanson, is problematic to say the least.
Fortifications seem to have had an obvious defensive purpose. But how effective were they in keeping the enemy at bay?
Anthony Snodgrass associated changes in fortifications with the rise of the so-called polis. Does that idea have merit?
Inspired by my postdoctoral research, I wonder whether walls were constructed primarily out of fear of attack.