In the history of ancient Greece, the Archaic period is usually dated to between ca. 800 and 500 BC. Often, the date is extended down to around 480 BC Some authors hold that the Archaic period proper starts with the first supposedly historic event, the Olympic Games of 776 BC. Others have the Archaic period start at around 700 BC.
Before the rise of the Persian Empire, the kingdom of Lydia was the most powerful neighbour to the ancient Greeks.
The notion of a typical “Western” way of war, as espoused most clearly by Victor Davis Hanson, is problematic to say the least.
Fortifications such as walls and gates seem to have had an obvious defensive purpose. But how effective were they in keeping the enemy at bay?
Anthony Snodgrass associated changes in Greek fortifications over the course of the Archaic period with the rise of the polis, i.e. the “city-state”. Does that idea have merit?
Inspired by his postdoctoral research, Josho wonders whether the ancient Greeks built walls around (part of) their settlements primarily out of fear of attack.