Nestled in between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, the Sumerians are thought to have developed the earliest cities and system of writing (cuneiform). The Sumerians can thus lay claim to being one of the oldest civilizations in the world, alongside ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley.
According to the Sumerian King List, kingship was already in the third millennium BC an ancient institution. But is this correct? Where and how did Sumerian kingship originate?
This book by the late Bruce Trigger offers a fascinating comparative analysis of seven early complex societies or “civilizations”.
Two gameboards from the Royal Tombs of Ur, a Sumerian city-state in what is now Iraq, date back to 2600–2400 BC.
This ancient stele, dated to between ca. 2600 and 2350 BC, is a key piece of evidence in the history of warfare.
Hamblin’s book on warfare in the ancient Near East offers a starting point for those who wish to learn more about this topic.
Ancient Inventions offers a broad and fascinating look at human ingenuity across thousands of years of history.